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Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) describes a very exciting new set of technologies that enable a simple maternal blood test to identify whether a fetus has any genetic abnormality or not. It has marked a revolution in aneuploidy and genetic screenings because it is safe and provides high level of reassurance for the presence of any genetic disorder in fetus early in pregnancy. Pregnant women, who have greater chances of high risk pregnancy due to family history of congenital abnormalities or are in their advanced maternal age, can opt for NIPT test from 10 weeks of gestation period. This test has been validated in a high-risk population and can be used for screening:

Aneuploidy
Due to the detection of fetal DNA in maternal blood, NIPT of fetal aneuploidy is becoming more promising. NIPT can screen for aneuploidy such as Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21), Edwards Syndrome, Turner Syndrome and Patau Syndrome. NIPT analyses both maternal and fetal DNA and look for differences in the DNA methylation patterns to detect aneuploidy in fetus.

Single gene disorders
Some single gene disorders are inherited in a dominant fashion from the father to fetus or arise de novo. In these situations, pregnant women, at high risk of having fetus with single gene disorders, can opt for NIPT. cffDNA of fetus with single gene disorders contain altered alleles that are not present in the maternal cfDNA. NIPT is available for achondroplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia and Apert syndrome.

Fetal blood genotyping
It is possible to analyse cffDNA of fetus for detecting the presence of Kell antibodies and human platelet antibodies (HPA). NIPT can also be used to analyse other genes in order to predict blood antibody status of fetus.

Microdeletion syndrome
By using advanced bioinformatics algorithms after maternal blood testing, NIPT can detect the presence of microdeletion syndrome in fetus such as Cri-du-Chat, Prader Willi and Angelman.

Rhesus D (RhD) typing in RhD- mothers
When the pregnant woman is RhD- and the fetus has inherited the RhD+ gene from father, then there are chances of developing haemolytic disease by the fetus. This condition is called haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). NIPT can be used to detect such condition, using which couples can take necessary prenatal care and optimum management.

 X-linked conditions
When a pregnant woman is suffering from Duchenne muscular dystrophy or congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) or both father and mother carry altered genes of CAH, then chances of the fetus carrying altered X gene increases. In such cases, NIPT can be used for fetal sex determination, so as to determine whether male fetus has inherited the condition from the mother or not.

In comparison to invasive screening options, non-invasive prenatal testing provides more reliable results with a higher positive predictive result. NIPT offers tremendous potential as a screening tool for fetal aneuploidy, gene disorders or other chromosomal abnormalities. NIPT is poised to significantly shift the paradigm of Diagnosi Prenatale in coming years because of its high reliability and accuracy and low risk.

Safe sex has numerous benefits when practiced in an intimate relationship. Many health specialists have outlined many sexual health benefits brought by sex, such as improved cholesterol levels and increased good blood circulation in the body. Sex has also been proven to encourage good flow of testosterone in men, a hormone that plays an important role in the immune system of a man. Practicing safe sex in a marriage can bring many health benefits that leads to a fruitful and enjoyable marriage.

People who are active in many lifestyle activities such as exercising, taking vitamins and eating the right food should also create time for frequent sex in their health regimen. A sexual activity is not a principal topic of research but many conducted studies suggests that sex has health benefits that are good for the overall body health. Safe sex practiced in a loving intimate relationship has numerous benefits to both partners. Sexual intercourse has been proven to reduce stress when partners release endorphin hormone that promote good mood to the body. This hormone is also known to slowdown the aging process and promote good feelings and happiness between partners. After a sexual intercourse, blood pressure is reduced and this helps to calm the mind and relieve stress. Good sex also helps to burn about 200 calories between the partners and this can be compared with spending about 15 minutes in a treadmill.

Sex benefits for him

According to a medical study published by the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA), men who frequently ejaculate in a sexual activity have a reduced chance of contracting prostrate cancer. This finding is supported by a small study conducted in Australia in the year 2003. The study concluded that men in their 20’s who ejaculate more than five times a week are less likely to develop prostrate cancer than their counter parts who ejaculate about seven times a month. Health specialists believes that ejaculating frequently lowers the risk of prostrate cancer by flashing because the body flashes out cancer-causing substances that may be trapped in the semen. In addition to this findings, researchers from Queens University, concluded that having sex more than three times a week helps to cut of the risks of having heart attacks and strokes. However, having sex with many multiple partners may raise the risks of developing prostrate cancer up to 40% because there is a risk of contracting sexual infections from many partners.

Sex benefits for Her

For women, sexual activity helps to prevent endometriosis, a serious gynecological condition that usually affects a population of about 89 million women in the world. This condition occurs when the tissue lining inside the uterus grow to other places such as ovaries and the fallopian tube. This growth is known to cause pelvic pain that leads to infertility among women. A study conducted by the Journal of the Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation showed that women who have sexual activities during their menstruation are 15 times less likely to develop endometriosis than women who abstain from sex during their menstruation periods.

The contractions that happen on the uterus during an organism helps to flash away menstrual debris that leads to the development of endometriosis. Sexual activity in women is also known to promote the production of estrogen, a hormone that acts as a painkiller. This hormone helps to relieve pain and reduce pre menstrual syndrome that causes health complication among women.

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